Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Very Important Notes for UGC NET


LIBRARY ASSOCIATIONS-ESTABLISHED YEAR-HEADQUARTER
Sr. No.
Title
Year
Place

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
1876
CHICAGO


LIBRARY ASSOCIATION(UK)
1977
LONDON

SPECIAL LIBRARY ASSOCIATION(SLA)US
1909
WASHINGTON

INDIAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION(ILA)
1933
NEW DELHI

INDIAN ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTERS(IASLIC)
1955
CALCUTTA

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF LIBRARY ASSOCIATIONS (IFLA)--
1927
THE HAUGE

COMMONWEALTH LIBRARY ASSOCIATION (COMLA)
1972
KINGSTON


ASSOCIATION FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT(ASLIB)
1924
LONDON

INDIAN ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCES(IATLIS)
1969


INDEXING SYSTEMS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTOR
CHAIN INDEX                                  S.R.RANGANATHAN
PRECIS                                              DEREK AUSTIN
POPSI                                                 G.BHATTACHARYA
UNITERM INDEXING                    M.TAUBE
KEYWORD INDEXING                  H.P.LUHN
CITATION INDEXING                   EUGINE GARFIELD
SUBJECT INDEXING                      M.E.SEARS
SLIC INDEXING                              J.R.SHARP
AUTOMATIC INDEXING              HERBERT OHLMAN
THESAURAS                                                P.M.ROGET

CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES AND YEAR OF PUBLICATION
Dewey Decimal Classification                        1876
Expansive Classificatgion                               1891
Library of congress Classification                  1904
Universal Decimal Classification                    1905
Subject Classification                                     1906
Colon Classification                                        1933
Bibliographic Classification                            1935
Riders Internation Classification                    1961
Broad System of Ordering                             1978
MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND THEIR PROFOUNDERS
Scientific Management Principles                               F.W. Taylor
Principles of Management                                          Henry Fayol
Management by Objectives                                        Peter Drucker
Hierarchy of Need Theory                                          A.Maslaw
Theory X and Theory Y                                              D. McGregor
Motivation Hygien approach                                      F. Herzberg
Social Realation of Management                                Elton Mayo

Internet Related Questions

• What is INTERNET?
Ans: Internet is the world's largest computer network, the "network of networks". Scattered all over the world

• When was the INTERNET Created?
Ans: It was created thirty six years ago as a project of U.S Department of Defense,

• What Internet service provider (ISP)?
Ans: It is the companies that provide INTERNET access.

• What is WWW?
Ans: It is the system based hypertext and HTTP for providing organizing and accessing wide verity of resources that are available by the INTERNET.

• What is web page?
Ans: It is a unit of information often called a document that is available over the WWW.
• Name the protocol that allows a computer to use the TCP/IP protocol and connected directly to the Net using a standard voice telephone line and high speed modem:
Ans: P PP (point-to-point protocol)]
• It is a software program that acts as an interface between the user and WWW what is it?
Ans: Web Browser
• Name two different type of Web Browser:
Ans: Text-based browser and Graphical Browser
• It collects and organizes resources that are available via the WWW, and designed to provide a starting point for locating information. Name it:
Ans: Web Index
• It is an interactive tool that enables to locate information available via Name it:
Ans: Search Engine
• It is unique, numeric identifier used to specify a particular host computer on a particular network, and is part of a global , standard’s scheme of identifying machines that are connected with INTERNET Name it:
Ans: IP Address (Internet Protocol)
• It is the way of identify and locate computers connected to the INTERNET Name it:
Ans: Domain Name
• It provides hierarchical way of identifying and locating INTERNET resources on the WWW Name It:
Ans: Uniform Resources Locater (URL)
• A binding document signed by all users that explains the rules of INTERNET use at an institution. Name it:
Ans: Acceptable user policy (AUP)
• What is gopher?
Ans: It is a protocol designed to search, retrieve and display documents from remote site on the Internet
• It is an Internet search tool that has the capability of searching many databases at one time. Name it:
Ans: Wide area information service (WAIS)
• What is FTP (file transfer protocol?)
Ans: The medium that allows transferring of files between computers on the net using an FTP program or via Netscape
What is E-Journal?
Ans: It is an electronics publications, typically found in academic circles
• What is NNTP?
Ans: Network News Transport Protocol-This is used to distribute network news
• Name the security feature that allows access to information on an individual basis:
Ans: Authentication

MIPS is an acronym for:
Ans: Millions of instructions per second

The duplicate copy of data/program on a separate storage medium is called:
Ans: Back up

A center processor placed on a semi-conductor chip is called as a:
Ans: Microprocessor

Who invented the modem?
Ans: AT&T Information System, USA

Which is standard internet protocol for distributing E-Mail?
Ans: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

The computer generated environment is called:
Ans: Virtual

Who coined the term hypertext in 1965?
Ans: Ted Nelson

Which protocol provides basis for the net?
Ans: Internet Protocol –IP
INSPEC (Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Community)
The Inspec database is an invaluable information resource , contains nearly 13 million abstracts and specialized
indexing to the world's quality research literature in the fields of physics and engineering. …................IMP
·published by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) [ formerly by the Institution of Electrical
Engineers (IEE),] London
· 1898 – IEE started the publication of “Science Abstracts” in January 1898 ….....................................IMP
·Inspec was started in 1967 as an outgrowth of the Science Abstracts service
· Coverage Subjects : Physics, Computer science,Mechanical engineering, Electrical engineering, Electronic
engineering, Communications,Control engineering, Information technology, Manufacturing,Mechanical engineering
·It's Update frequency is Weekly
· Since 1967, electronic access to Science Abstracts has been provided by INSPEC
· Access to INSPEC is currently by the Internet through Inspec Direct from 2008.................................IMP
· Summer 2005 saw Inspec accredited with the ISO9001:2000 quality standard for its production system.
Inspec landmarks [Its r details , not necessary to remember all of it.]
1960s
· 1964 - Current Papers for the Professional and Electrical and Electronics Engineer launched;
· 1966 - Control Abstracts - Science Abstracts Section C launched;
· 1966 - Current Papers in Control and Current Papers in Physics launched;
· 1967 - INSPEC launched;
· 1969 - Computerized production system;
· 1969 - Control Abstracts becomes Computer and Control Abstracts.
1970s
· 1970 - INSPEC Magnetic Tape Service introduced;
· 1970 - SDI and Topics Services launched;
· 1971 - INSPEC Treatment Codes introduced;
· 1972 - August - First issue of INSPEC Matters;
· 1973 - January - INSPEC Thesaurus and Unified Classification Scheme introduced;
· 1973 - September - INSPEC goes online at Lockheed DIALOG via the Tymeshare network in the USA;
· 1974 - INSPEC goes online at CISTI and at ESA-IRS;
· 1974 - September - 1000th issue of Physics Abstracts;
· 1974 - October - Physics Abstracts reaches one million abstracts;
· 1975 - Key Abstracts series launched - 6 titles;
· 1977 - INSPEC goes online at BRS;
· 1978 - INSPEC goes online at SDC Orbit and FIZ Karlsruhe.
1980s
· 1981 - April - Electrical and Electronics Abstracts reaches 1000th issue;
· 1982 - March - Inspec reaches 2 million records;
· 1983 - IT Focus launched (Section D of the database);
· 1983 - August - Electrical and Electronics Abstracts reaches one million abstracts;
· 1984 - July Physics Abstracts reaches two million abstracts;
· 1984 - September - Inspec extends coverage to IEEE standards;
· 1984 - October - Japan Update - weekly updating service introduced;
· 1985 - Treatment code R ('Product Reviews') introduced;
· 1986 - April - Inspec available on STN;
· 1987 - January - Inspec reload on ESA-IRS. File now goes back to 1969;
· 1987 - Chemical and numerical data indexing introduced;
· 1987 - Inspec reaches three million records;
· 1988 - January - Key Abstracts series increased to 18 titles;
· 1988 - January - Topics and SDI service revamped - output now laser printed;
· 1988 - June - Inspec Thesaurus available on STN;
· 1989 - June - Database Upgrade Project completed. Revised database named INSPEC2.
1990s
· 1990 - November - INSPEC2 loaded on DIALOG;
· 1990 - December - INSPEC2 loaded on STN;
· 1991 - March - INSPEC2 loaded on Data-Star;
· 1991 - September - InspecOndisc (produced by UMI) launched;
· 1991 - October - Inspec reaches four million records;
· 1992 - Weekly updating of Tape Service introduced;
· 1992 - Correction Tape Service introduced;
· 1993 - First loading of corrected records on Data-Star and ESA-IRS;
· 1993 - November - Inspec available on OCLC's EPIC and FirstSearch Services;
· 1993 - December - Inspec wins best Information Product from the European Online User Group for the quality
Enhancements made to INSPEC2;
· 1994 - Inspec's Document Delivery Service (run by Ask*IEEE) introduced;
· 1995 - January - FIZ Kahlsruhe and INSPEC merge the INSPEC and PHYS databases;
· 1995 - January - Astronomical Object Indexing introduced;
· 1995 - June - Inspec reaches five million records;
· 1995 - December - site licences (hard disc) made available from SilverPlatter;
· 1996 - Inspec extends coverage to electronic journals;
· 1996 - Site Licences (hard disc) made available from Ovid;
· 1997 - Institute of Physics links cited references in journal articles to Inspec records;
· 1997 - Inspec goes online at QUESTEL;
· 1998 - Inspec US Marketing Office moves to new location;
· 1998 - June - Inspec announces New Windows CD-ROM (produced by Headfast);
· 1998 - August - Inspec reaches six million records;
· 1998 - October - Inspec national site licence made available for academic institutions in the United Kingdom and the
Republic of Ireland.
2000s
· 2000 - January - Electronic delivery (via e-mail in HTML format) of INSPEC's fortnightly Topics and SDI service;
· 2000 - February - Inspec® made available via ScienceDirect®;
· 2000 - March - Prominent IEE Journals made available via SilverPlatter'sSilverLinker®;
· 2001 - August - Inspec reaches seven million records;
· 2002 - Inspec available on Web of Knowledge;
· 2002 - Inspec available on EBSCOhost;
· 2003 - December - Section E: manufacturing and production engineering added;
· 2003 - Inspec sales office opened in Hong Kong;
· 2004 - Inspec Archive (Science Abstracts 1898 - 1968) produced;
· 2004 - Inspec reaches eight million records;
· 2008 - Inspec Direct launched;
· 2008 - Inspec reaches ten million records.
Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS )
• It is premier bibliographic database in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine.
• Since 1879, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) has published Index Medicus, a monthly guide to
medical articles in thousands of journals.
• It was launched by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) in 1964 as a computerised system
known as MEDLARS.
• In 1971 an online version called MEDLINE
• The National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in
Bethesda, Maryland, is the world's largest medical library.
• MEDLINE is the primary component of PubMed
• Some of the data bases–MEDLINE, CATLINE,AVLINE, HISTLINE, SERLINE, and SDILINE–
are created and maintained solely by NLM.
Some of the Databases of NLM
PubMed
PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science
journals, and online books
MeSH Browser
The MeSH Browser is an online vocabulary look-up aid available for use with MeSH® (Medical Subject
Headings). It is designed to help quickly locate descriptors of possible interest and to show the hierarchy in
which descriptors of interest appear. Virtually complete MeSH records are available, including the scope
notes, annotations, entry vocabulary, history notes, allowable qualifiers, etc
TOXNET - Databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases.
Web Browser …..One Question May be
1990 --The first web browser was invented in by Tim Berners-Lee. It was called WorldWideWeb and was later renamed Nexus
A web browser are an application software
The major web browsers are Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari

Launched Year
 Web Browser
Developed by

1994
Netscape Navigator
Netscape Communications Corporation (now part of AOL)

1995
Internet Explorer
Microsoft Corporation
the most widely used web browser
1996
Opera
Opera Software ASA

2003
Safari
Apple Inc.

2004
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Corporation
Open Source Web Browser
2008
Google Chrome
Google

 Usages of Web Browser (As On 2012)
Internet Explorer              27.95%
Google Chrome                 23.96%
Firefox                               21.80%  
Safari                                  13.64%
Web Browser and Examination View
Question may on First web Browser?
Ans- 1990 --The first web browser was invented in by Tim Berners-Lee. It was called WorldWideWeb and was later renamed Nexus 
Which is the Open Source web Browser
Ans-
2004
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Corporation
Open Source Web Browser

What is Web Browser? With options (System software, Application software, operating software, search Engine)
Ans-
1995
Internet Explorer
Microsoft Corporation
the most widely used web browser

Matching the Pairs –Web Browser and Their Developers or web Browser and one example is another side
List is given and ask which is odd one or which is not a web browse
Unicode ?
UNICODE stands for Universal character encoding, maintained by the Unicode Consortium.
 This encoding standard provides the basis for processing,storage and interchange of text data in any language in all modern software and ICT protocols. 
It uses two bytes or 16 bits to code each character.
What is firewall
A system designed to prevent unauthorizedaccessto or from a privatenetwork. Firewalls can be implemented in bothhardwareandsoftware, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorizedInternetusers from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especiallyintranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specifiedsecuritycriteria.
What is Webinar?
 Webinar is a short for Web-based seminar, a presentation, lecture, workshop or seminar that is transmitted over the Web. 
A key feature of a Webinar is its interactive elements -- the ability to give, receive and discuss information. Contrast with Webcast, in which the data transmission is one way and does not allow interaction between the presenter and the audience.
What  is router?
-A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP??s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. 
Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. 
What is Delphi Technique ?
Delphi technique helps managers and decision makers to make better forecasts and advice. This method recognises human judgments as legitimate and makes useful inputs in generating forecasts and also that the judgment of a number of informed people is likely to be better than the judgment of a single individual who may be misinformed or highly biased. Thus, the Delphi technique is a way of allowing only those interactions to occur that are likely to improve the quality of a forecast or decision.
The Delphi Technique has been widely used to generate forecasts in technology, education and other fields. It may also be possible to apply this technique as an evaluation technique in case a situation demands.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
·        The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT,
·        is a statistical tool, used in project management
·        is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project
·        developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s
·        it is commonly used in conjunction with the critical path method or CPM.
·        Program Evaluation and Review Technique (code-named PERT) is applied as a decision-making
tool designed to save time in achieving end-objectives, and is of particular interest to those
engaged in research and development programs for which time is a critical factor.
Critical path method (CPM)
·        The critical path method (CPM) is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities
·        It is an important tool for effective project management.
·        The critical path method (CPM) is a project modeling technique developed in the late
1950s by Morgan R. Walker of DuPont and James E. Kelley, Jr. of Remington Rand
·        CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities to the end of the project, and the earliest
and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer
·        In project management, a critical path is the sequence of project network activities which add upto the longest overall duration
Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models.
It embodies the concepts of information source,messagetransmittersignalchannelnoisereceiver,
In 1948 Claude Elwood Shannon published A Mathematical Theory of Communication article in two parts in the July and October numbers of the Bell System Technical Journal.[2
The book co-authored with Warren WeaverThe Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it
Shannon's theory is used more literally and is referred to as Shannon theory, or information theory
where C is channel capacity measured in bits/second, W is the bandwidth in Hz, S is the signal level in watts across the bandwidth W, and N is the noise power in watts in the bandwidth W.

 Electronic mail?
commonly known as email or e-mail
An email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body.
What is WorldCat?
WorldCat is a global network of library content and services that uses the Web to let your institution be more connected, more open and more productive.
WorldCat is a union catalog
WorldCat was founded by Fred Kilgour in 1967
It is the world's largest bibliographic database
In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program
OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries
N-LIST?
An Initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Under the National Mission on Education through ICT 
NLIST abbreviated as "National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content “
Besides 12B/2F colleges, NLIST Programme is now opened to Non -Aided Colleges (except Agriculture, Engineering, Management, Medical, Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing).
being jointly executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre and the INDEST-AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi for i) cross-subscription to e-resources subscribed by the two Consortia, i.e. subscription to INDEST-AICTE resources for universities and UGCINFONET resources for technical institutions; and ii) access to selected e-resources to colleges.
The N-LIST project provides access to e-resources to students, researchers and faculty from colleges and other beneficiary institutions
Server(s) is installed at the INFLIBNET Centre
Open Source Software and Libraries
The areas Where libraries can see the implemanataion of OSS
Library Management Systems
e.g.KOHA,Evergreen,NewGenlib
Digital Libraries (Greenstone ,Dspace,Eprint
E-Publishing
Federated Searching (Open Jounal System (OJS))
Consortium Management
Conten Management System (Joomla ,PlonePostnuke,Xoops,Srupal
E-Learning Softwares (Moodle,Atutor,Claroline,OLAT,Saki Project)
Library Management Systems?

KOHA
Koha is the first free and open source software  Integrated Library System (ILS),
Koha was developed in 1999 by Katipo Communications  in New Zealand
Koha is distributed under the Free Software General Public License (GPL) version 2 or later

NewGenLib
developed by Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd. Domain expertise is provided by Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledge Management in HyderabadIndia.
NewGenLib version 1.0 was released in March 2005
NewGenLib was declared Open Source Software under GNU GPL Licence 
NewGenLib uses UNICODE 3.0

Greenstone
Greenstone is produced by the New Zealand Digital Library Project in 2000
Greenstone is a suite of software for building and distrubting digital library collection
Conten Management System (Joomla ,PlonePostnuke,Xoops,Drupal)
Drupal
Drupal was created in 2000
Developed by a Dries Buytaert (Belgian)
It is a Content Management System modular
The standard release of Drupal known as “Drupal core”
Drupal uses Apache,MySql and PHP
website of White House ,United States is developed over Drupal
Drupal is Licensed under GNU
Jooomla
is a free source Open Content Management System (CMS)
developed in Sept 2005.
it wins Packet publishing Open Souirce Content Management System Award in 2006 and 2007
Joomla plugins previously known as Mambots”
Plone
It is a free Content Management System (CMS)
it is realsed under GNU (Genral Public License (GPL)
N-LIST
1 © INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad
1. Background
The Project entitled “National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content
(N-LIST)”, being jointly executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET
Centre and the INDEST-AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi provides for i) cross-subscription to e-resources
subscribed by the two Consortia, i.e. subscription to INDEST-AICTE resources for universities
and UGCINFONET resources for technical institutions; and ii) access to selected e-resources
to colleges. The N-LIST project provides access to e-resources to students, researchers and
faculty from colleges and other beneficiary institutions through server(s) installed at the INFLIBNET
Centre. The authorized users from colleges can now access e-resources and download articles
required by them directly from the publisher’s website once they are duly authenticated as authorized
users through servers deployed at the INFLIBNET Centre.
The project has four distinct components, i.e. i ) to subscribe and provide access to selected
UGC-INFONET e-resources to technical institutions (IITs, IISc, IISERs and NITs) and monitor its
usage; ii) to subscribe and provide access to selected INDEST e-resources to selected universities
and monitor its usage; iii) to subscribe and provide access to selected e-resources to 6,000
Govt./ Govt.-aided colleges and monitor its usage; and iv) to act as a Monitoring Agency for
colleges and evaluate, promote, impart training and monitor all activities involved in the process of
providing effective and efficient access to e-resources to colleges.
The INDEST and UGC-INFONET are jointly responsible for activity listed at i) and ii) above. The
INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad is responsible for activities listed at iii) and iv) above. The INFLIBNET
Centre is also responsible for developing and deploying appropriate software tools and techniques
for authenticating authorized users.
2. Current Status
As on April 22, 2010, a total number of 1,176 colleges have registered themselves with the N-LIST
programme including 659 Govt. / Govt.-aided colleges covered under the 12 B Act of the UGC.
Log-in ID and password for accessing e-resources has been sent to the authorized users from
these 659 colleges. Remaining colleges are being advised to join the initiative as N-LIST Associates.
All e-resources subscribed for colleges under the N-LIST Project are now accessible to
these 659 colleges through the N-List website.
3. Beneficiary Institutions
The following four sets of institutions are benefitting from the N-LIST Project:
i) Universities covered under Phase I of the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium can now
access Web of Science.
ii) IITs, IISc, IISERs and selected NITs (i.e. core members of the INDEST-AICTE Consortium)
can now access selected e-resources namely Annual Reviews, Project Muse and Nature.
iii) 6,000 Govt. / Govt.-aided colleges covered under 12 B Act of the UGC can now access se
lected electronic resources including electronic journals, electronic books and bibliographic
databases. These resources include more than 2100 e-journals and 51,000 e-books.
iv) Colleges, not covered under the 12B Act of the UGC, can benefit from the N-LIST Programme
by joining the programme as its Associate. These colleges will be required to pay a fixed
amount towards subscription to e-resources and annual subscription.

Open Journal Systems (OJS)
is an open-source software for the management of peer-reviewer academic journals,
created by the Public Knowledge Project, released under the GNU General Public License.
 released in 2001 
OJS Features
OJS is installed locally and locally controlled.
Editors configure requirements, sections, review process, etc.
Online submission and management of all content.
Subscription module with delayed open access options.
Comprehensive indexing of content part of global system.
Reading Tools for content, based on field and editors' choice.
Email notification and commenting ability for readers.
Complete context-sensitive online Help support.
OJS is open source software made freely available to journals worldwide for the purpose of making open access publishing a viable option for more journals
 A COUNTER plugin (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources)
OJS is written in PHP, uses either a MySQL or PostgreSQL database 
Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)
Means  "wireless local area network (WLAN)
Vic Hayes has been called the "father of Wi-Fi"
he term Wi-Fi, first used commercially in August 1999
The term Wi-Fi was created by an organization called the Wi-Fi Alliance
Wi-Fi networks locations are known as hot spots
 The activity of locating and exploiting security-exposed wireless LANs is called war driving.
An identifying iconography, called war chalking,
Wi-Fi networks have limited range of 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors
Wi Fi is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards
Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless-communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates .WiMAX is sometimes referred to as "Wi-Fi on steroids"
Cataloging in Publication (CIP)
A Cataloging in Publication record is a bibliographic record prepared by the Library of Congress for a book that has not yet been published. When the book is published, the publisher includes the CIP data on the copyright page thereby facilitating book processing for libraries and book dealers. 
The Library of Congress to assign control numbers in advance of publication to those titles that may be added to the Library's collections.
Some Terms and concepts in Management Unit
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept created by W. Edwards Deming.
Six Sigma is a business management strategy, originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986
The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s
The Critical Path Method (CPM) (an algorithm for scheduling )  developed in the late 1950s by Morgan R. Walker and James E. Kelley
The term "Marketing Mix" was coined in 1953 by Neil Borden
Peter Phyrr used Zero Base Budgeting (ZBB) term first
Programme Budgeting System was first introduced by the then United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1960s. 

The National Knowledge Commission
 The National Knowledge Commission is a high-level advisory body to the Prime Minister of India, with the objective of transforming India into a knowledge society.
National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was constituted on 13th June 2005
the National Knowledge Commission has been given a mandate to guide policy and direct reforms, focusing on certain key areas such as education, science and technology, agriculture, industry, e-governance
Easy access to knowledge, creation and preservation of knowledge systems, dissemination of knowledge and better knowledge services are core concerns of the commission.
Mr. Sam Pitroda is the Chairperson of NKC
The Secretariat of the Commission is located in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi.
Some of the issues under consideration of National Knowledge Commission are:
1.institutional framework of libraries;
2.networking;
3.education, training and research;
4.modernization and computerization of libraries;
5.maintenance of private and personal collections and staff requirements to meet changing needs.


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